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Key Words: Diffusion-weighted imaging - Paraganglioma - Apparent diffusion coefficient Zusammenfassung Hintergrund: Paragangliome sind seltene benigne Tumoren.

Magnetic resonance imaging MRI demonstrated degenerative changes of the lumbar spine with disk herniation, facet joint degeneration, and instability of the presacral segment.

Following epidural steroid injection, local infection and sepsis occurred and, finally, tetraparesis developed.

A cervical epidural abscess was demonstrated on follow-up MRI and evacuation was performed. The patient survived severely handicapped.

Legal proceedings were initiated against the radiologists. They were accused of causing damage to the patient. The plaint was defeated with special reference to the report and expertise of the neuroradiologic evidence.

Monaco, Brian T. Jankowitz, Elizabeth C. Tyler-Kabara and Michael B. No reports exist demonstrating this via magnetic resonance angiography MRA.

As invasive and noninvasive imaging have become more widespread, vascular abnormalities are diagnosed with higher frequencies.

Understanding of such variants is important for the diagnosis and treatment of vascular disease, particularly via endovascular approaches [9].

We report a year-old girl with no right CCA. The visual deficit reversed to the pre-operative severity grade after endovascular obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm with preservation of the parent vessel.

The etiology and pathophysiology of pseudoaneurysm development and of visual recovery in the present case are discussed.

It consists of fibers running in the central tegmental tract from the red nucleus to the ipsilateral inferior olivary nucleus, from here to the contralateral dentate nucleus through the inferior cerebellar peduncle and from there via the dentatorubral tract running in the superior cerebellar peduncle back to the ipsilateral red nucleus Figure 1.

This neuronal circuit acts as an inhibitory system on cortical generated impulses by comparing them with their performance in the peripheral motor effector organs.

Lesions including parts of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle may result in a rare, but characteristic hypertrophic degeneration of the inferior olivary nucleus [2].

A cranial computed tomography done in a district hospital showed a cystic lesion within the right frontal lobe.

The neurologic as well as the physical examinations upon admission to our hospital were normal. Mild leukocytosis with Brain magnetic resonance imaging MRI confirmed the cystic lesion in the frontal lobe and revealed ring enhancement on T1-weighted T1w images after administration of gadolinium Figure 1d.

Open microsurgical resection of the lesion was performed via a frontal approach. The content of the cyst was drained, and the wall of the cyst was resected.

Macroscopically, the lesion had a grayish-glassy appearance compatible with gliomatous tissue. Elger The possibility of discovering incidental findings is a serious ethical and juridical issue in human neuroimaging research.

There is consensus among neuroscientists and neuroradiologists that appropriately handling incidental findings requires ethical guidelines.

The Bonn Neuroethics Working Group is organizing a comprehensive process among neuroscientists from German-speaking countries with the aim of identifying the points of consent and preparing a proposal for future guidelines.

The aim of the editorial of Hentschel and von Kummer on behalf of the DGNR was to enhance the quality of the discussion and provide a solid basis for the sincere criticism of the guideline as proposed so far.

When writing and publishing this editorial, the revision of the guideline by Heinemann et al. We agree with our colleagues in Bonn in now concentrating on the next version and working on the guideline for brain imaging research based on essential ethical and juridical concepts and distinctions that will become an internationally recognized standard regarding the detection and interpretation of incidental imaging findings in brain research.

To achieve a common base for the evaluation of tumors, a possible dissemination and responses to treatment or the natural course of a CNS central nervous system tumor, all imaging studies of patients included in these studies are reviewed by the national Reference Center for Neuroradiology.

The center also serves as a common database for the collection of imaging examinations of rare brain tumors and as consulting institution mainly for tumorous lesions of the brain and spinal cord.

The large numbers of various CNS tumors also enable broad-based scientific evaluations on different aspects of imaging. The aims and patient populations of the different studies are described and the typical morphology and the differential diagnostic aspects of the individual tumors as well as the main principles of oncologic staging procedures in pediatric brain tumors are presented.

Common problems occurring during the review evaluation are discussed and a common imaging proposition for the European brain tumor studies is presented.

Present and future aims are the improvement in the treatment of children with brain tumors and the implementation of new imaging techniques in the common imaging protocols to facilitate the resolution of problems with conventional imaging like persisting residual tumors or the identification of possibly treatment-related lesions.

The authors hypothesized that using a short echo time TE should not only reduce susceptibility artifacts but also increase the overall signal-to-noise ratio and allow to retrieve a blood oxygenation level-dependent BOLD signal in regions normally affected by these artifacts.

Material and Methods: Two sequences with TEs of 60 and 32 ms were compared using a 1. In an olfactory stimulation paradigm, activations in piriform cortex were compared.

Concomitant to this, geometric distortions and signal dropout artifacts were decreased at orbitofrontal and temporomesial brain areas in both paradigms.

Changes in cortical activation were significant in the right, but not in the left piriform cortex. Conclusion: Although a shorter TE reduces signal dropouts due to susceptibility artifacts, this shorter TE is not sufficient to recover the BOLD signal from regions affected by susceptibility artifacts such as the piriform cortex.

In einem olfaktorischen Paradigma wurden Aktivierungen im piriformen Kortex verglichen. Schild and Andreas O.

Gerstner Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness and safety of cone-beam computed tomography CBCT dacryocystography in detecting lesions, identifying coexisting soft-tissue changes and determining treatment options in patients with epiphora.

Patients and Methods: Unilateral digital subtraction dacryocystography and CBCT dacryocystography were carried out on 45 patients.

Stenoses and occlusions were identified and coexisting changes such as septal deviation and dacryoliths were noted. The diameter of the bony lacrimal duct of affected and unaffected side was measured and related to the clinically evident epiphora.

An attempt was made to base the subsequent therapeutic planning on the CBCT dacryocystographic findings.

Additionally, the radiation dose levels for CBCT dacryocystography in comparison to those of multislice computed tomography MSCT were evaluated in a standardized head-neck Rando-Alderson phantom.

The minimal bony diameter of the side with epiphora was significantly decreased compared to the unaffected side. Coexisting soft-tissue changes did not correlate significantly with the clinical sign of epiphora.

Eight patients showed no underlying reason for the epiphora and were treated conservatively. A total of eleven patients received interventional therapy for their stenosis and 23 patients had to be treated surgically.

A further three patients received medical treatment for infection, before surgery and interventional therapy, respectively, were carried out.

Conclusion: CBCT dacryocystography is a safe and time-efficient modality for assessing the nasolacrimal duct system in patients with epiphora.

CBCT dacryocystography provides detailed images of the nasolacrimal drainage system, surrounding soft tissue, and bony structures in one diagnostic tour.

It allows clear measurement of the bony nasolacrimal duct and displays information beyond that of the drainage lumen, improving the planning of therapeutic interventional and surgical procedures.

Bei 34 der 45 Patienten konnten ein oder mehrere Zusatzbefunde erhoben werden. Die statistische Analyse der Zusatzbefunde ergab jedoch keinen signifikanten Zusammenhang zwischen dem Vorliegen eines oder mehrerer dieser Zusatzbefunde und dem Auftreten von Epiphora.

After hospitalization, a computed tomography CT study was done and reported as normal. The discharge home followed after symptomatic treatment for 5 days.

Now, a subarachnoid hemorrhage with an intracerebral bleeding of the left frontal lobe was diagnosed in another hospital.

This was suspicious for an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. It was treated with coiling and, in addition, an installation of an external cerebrospinal fluid CSF drainage was necessary because of a hydrocephalus with development of a temporary CSF leakage.

The patient appealed to the fact-finding board for medical liability questions because of the misdiagnosis of the first treating hospital.

The board found the adjustment of damages of the patient to be valid and recommended an extrajudicial regulation.

Jetzt wurde in einer anderen Klinik mittels CT eine Subarachnoidalblutung mit intrazerebraler Blutung frontal links bei Verdacht auf ein Aneurysma der Arteria communicans anterior diagnostiziert.

Clinically, they are rare tumors mostly appearing with signs of increased intracranial pressure caused by occlusive hydrocephalus.

They typically present as hyper- to isodense non-contrast-enhancing masses on computed tomography CT.

Hypo-dense colloid cysts are regarded as uncommon. The description of the signal intensity of colloid cysts on magnetic resonance imaging MRI varies widely.

They are described as hypointense, isointense or hyperintense on T1-weighted images. Even on T2 images they may appear with very low to high signal intensity.

In conclusion, one may say that colloid cysts are commonly homogeneously hyperintense to brain on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, but MRI signal characteristics are variable.

On fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery FLAIR images, the signal is not suppressed and they usually show no enhancement. The missing contrast enhancement is considered a more important differential criterion.

In addition, she suffered from an endocrine disorder with type 2 diabetes and a panhypopituitarism. Upon admission to our hospital the patient presented with slowed psychomotricity and neuropsychological deficits.

Apart from gait ataxia the neurologic examination was normal. The ophthalmologic examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI showed a contrast-enhancing lesion in both hypothalami with suprasellar extension.

A histopathologic diagnosis could be established after stereotactic biopsy of the lesion. Their classification depends on the differentiation of shunting versus nonshunting lesions, the latter being the spinal cord cavernomas.

In the shunting lesions, the next step in the proposed classification scheme is related to the feeding artery which can subdivide the dural vascular shunts from the pial vascular malformations: while those shunts that are fed by radiculomeningeal arteries i.

Depending on the type of transition between artery and vein, the latter pial AVMs can be further subdivided into glomerular plexiform or nidus-type AVMs with a network of intervening vessels in between the artery and vein and the fistulous pial AVMs.

The proposed classification is therefore based on a stepwise analysis of the shunt including its arterial anatomy, its nidus architecture and its flow-volume evaluation.

The major advantage of this approach is that it leads to a subclassification with direct implications on the choice of treatment, thereby constituting a simple and practical approach to evaluate these rare diseases.

It occurs in all age groups, but affects predominately young and middle-aged females. The symptoms of CVST are highly variable, thus, diagnosis is often made with a considerable delay.

This review first presents a short summary of the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical signs, and prognosis of CVST.

Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt auf der neuroradiologischen Diagnose der Erkrankung. CT was used as gold standard.

CSF flow artifacts occurred predominantly in the third and fourth ventricles. Der CT-Befund wurde als Goldstandard herangezogen.

Despite the nonspecific and variable clinical presentation of these patients, they show typical radiologic findings.

Previous studies evaluated typical radiologic findings with symmetric infratentorial hyperintense signal changes and similar alteration in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the splenium of corpus callosum, the medial lemniscus and the lateral brainstem.

In context with the reviewed literature, a series of another three cases with toxic leukoencephalopathy after heroin abuse other than vapor inhalation is presented.

Patients and Methods: All three patients underwent magnet resonance imaging MRI including additional diffusion- weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient maps.

Clinical and laboratory findings were recorded. Results: MRI of all three patients revealed similar symmetric supratentorial hyperintense signal changes involving the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes.

The cortex was spared and the subcortical U fibers were partially involved. Further, the brainstem and the cerebellar white matter were not affected.

Conclusion: Toxic leukoencephalopathy without involvement of the cerebellum and brainstem is a rare complication of heroin abuse.

The pattern of heroin-induced toxic leukoencephalopathy on MRI might not only be related to an unknown adulterant, but also to the mode of drug administration.

Der Kortex war komplett und die subkortikalen U-Fasern waren partiell ausgespart. Schlussfolgerung: Die toxische Leukoenzephalopathie ohne Einbezug des Cerebellums und des Hirnstamms ist eine seltene Komplikation bei Heroinabusus.

The authors present their initial experience with a self-expanding stent for use in intracranial vascular reconstruction, permitting immediate recanalization of acute thromboembolic occlusions of the anterior circulation.

Treatment comprised systemic and intraarterial thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy, and stent placement. Neither distal emboli nor any procedure-related complications were encountered.

One patient developed symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and two patients needed decompressive craniectomy after treatment.

The use of antiplatelet therapy after treatment may, however, increase the risk of reperfusion intracerebral hemorrhage. Ergebnisse: Sechs Patienten wurden eingeschlossen.

Distale Emboli und prozedurale Komplikationen traten nicht auf. Im Verlauf erlitt ein Patient eine symptomatische intrazerebrale Blutung, zwei weitere Patienten mussten zur Druckentlastung kraniektomiert werden.

In dieser Serie zeigt sich eine hohe Effizienz mit Reperfusion bei allen Patienten. After interdisciplinary consultation, combined treatment with endovascular embolization and subsequent stereotactic irradiation was recommended.

Once the patient had survived the acute phase with application of external drainage and later implantation of a shunt system, he was left with an organic brain syndrome.

His lawyer brought suit against the clinic for improper treatment and inadequate information. The court rejected the suit as without foundation, basing its reasoning essentially on the statements of the neuroradiologic expert.

Kategorie Correspondence DOI They can present either with unusual imaging appearance in the form of unusual signals or in uncommon locations.

Epidermoid cyst and abscess are among those lesions which are usually hypointense on T1-weighted imaging T1-WI but rarely can be hyperintense on T1-WI and can mimic each other in different pulse sequences including diffusion-weighted imaging DWI.

When they are present in an uncommon location, they can be confused with each other, especially when one is situated in a location considered more characteristic of the other.

Here, we describe this potential confusing scenario in the form of two cases. Taschner Clinical Case A year-old farmer presented with complex partial seizures and headache for 9 months.

An initial magnetic resonance imaging MRI exam revealed an infiltrating lesion within the left frontotemporal region and the right temporal lobe Figure 1.

A stereotactic brain biopsy in September yielded unspecific findings with diffuse hypercellularity and reactive changes. Therefore, no therapy was initiated.

The patient was readmitted in May , after he had suffered a generalized seizure. Upon admission he was comatose with a fixed and dilated left pupil.

Emergency intubation was performed, a ventricular drainage was placed, and steroids and osmotherapy were given because of increased intracranial pressure ICP and signs of uncal herniation.

A second MRI was performed revealing an increase of the space-occupying effect as well as a new lesion within the left-sided inferior temporal gyrus Figure 2.

Hattingen, S. Blasel, M. Nichtweiss, F. Zanella and S. Weidauer Abstract The spectrum of pathologic processes affecting the midbrain features some differences to other brain areas.

The midbrain is exposed to traumatic alterations due to its position between the tentorial edges, and some neurodegenerative and metabolic-toxic diseases may typically involve the midbrain.

Primary midbrain tumors are also infrequent and often show a benign clinical course. Apart from multiple sclerosis other inflammatory autoimmune processes and some infectious agents predominantly affect the brainstem including the midbrain.

This review discusses the different pathologic processes of the midbrain, i. Obschon regelhaft eine mesenzephale Beteiligung beim Basilarisspitzensyndrom vorliegt, sind isolierte Mittelhirninfarkte selten.

Flacke, H. Tschampa, D. Hadizadeh, S. Greschus, H. Clusmann, R. Kristof and H. Urbach Abstract Background and Purpose: Streak artifacts caused by aneurysm clips and coils impede image quality in multidetector computed tomography MDCT.

The authors propose a technique to minimize these artifacts by gated data reconstruction and shifting the reconstruction window.

Patients and Methods: Intracranial CT angiograms were acquired in the follow-up of six patients with clipped and coiled intracranial aneurysms, respectively.

Data acquisition was gated via an external pacemaker cable-connected to the scanner. Results: Artifact orientation could be rotated by shifting the reconstruction window and interesting vessel segments visualized without disturbing streak artifacts.

This allowed to assess the posterior communicating artery origin in two cases and a middle cerebral artery aneurysm remnant in another case, respectively.

However, due to a higher noise interesting vessel segments were not adjustable in another three patients. Conclusion: Gated MDCT is a promising technique to reduce the amount and to change the position of artifacts induced by clips or coils.

Wir stellen eine neue Methode zur Artefaktreduktion vor durch Verwendung einer getriggerten Datenakquisition und durch Verschiebung des Rekonstruktionsintervalls.

Material und Methodik: Sechs Patienten mit geclippten bzw. After endovascular therapy by coiling, a hemiparesis was observed following extubation.

Disturbance of speech and disorientation added later. An infarct of the lenticular nucleus was found. The angiography showed an occlusion of a frontal opercular branch of the left middle cerebral artery.

The fact-finding board for medical liability should investigate, if the infarct with continuous neurological deficits is explained by improper treatment and if the following management of complication was adequate.

A neuroradiologic opinion was requested. Based on that, the board came to the result that no incorrect medical treatment was done. Im Computertomogramm stellte sich ein frischer Linsenkerninfarkt dar.

Die Angiographie zeigte einen Verschluss eines frontalen operkularen Astes der A. Es wurde ein neuroradiologisches Gutachten angefordert.

Urbach, A. Grote, P. Niehusmann, L. Roesseler and K. Kuchelmeister Introduction The choroid plexus of the 4th ventricle is a T-like, doubled-layered, secretory epithelium attached to the inferior roof and extending into the lateral recesses and foramina of Luschka.

It often calcifies or appears lobulated or cystic. In its normal state, the choroid plexus state shows a papillary or villous architecture supported by a ramifying thin fibrovascular stroma.

We report on a year-old patient with a choroid plexus adenoma in the 4th ventricle and discuss differential diagnoses.

Fischer, C. Schul, P. Lanzer and H. Cervical spondylosis and osteophyte formation affecting the foramina transversaria have been associated primarily with vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

Diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with a suspected cerebral artery dissection includes diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetic resonance imaging MRI , magnetic resonance angiography MRA , and, in most cases, a selective digital subtraction angiography DSA.

Recommended treatment includes therapeutic anticoagulation to prevent thrombus formation and endovascular revascularization to restore patency [3].

Recurrent stenosis due to intimal hyperplasia or other mechanisms remains a major concern. Here, we report a case of vertebral artery dissection and recurrent in-stent stenoses due to external vessel compression caused by an adjacent vertebral osteophyte.

Dorn, A. Milkereit, P. Berlit and T. Liebig Introduction Local or regional inflammatory disease in the head and neck region is a common and usually benign condition.

We present three cases of ischemic brain infarctions that occurred due to transmural involvement of the internal carotid artery ICA as a complication of sinusitis and otitis and discuss endovascular treatment options.

Rossitti Introduction This communication concerns a case of severe intracerebral hematoma and intraventricular hemorrhage in a young man, with continuous hemorrhage shown on angiography that was controlled by transarterial occlusion of a bleeding thalamoperforating artery.

The pathophysiology of continuous intracranial bleeding in this particular case is discussed. Moske-Eick, C.

Taschner, S. Krauss, J. Kirschner, V. Rottenburger, J. Prinz Clinical Case In October , a year-old previously healthy boy was referred to our hospital with paresthesia of the left leg for several weeks and new onset of mild proximal weakness of the right arm and leg.

There was no history of trauma or previous infection. On clinical examination, the child presented discrete hemiparesis with increased deep tendon reflexes and a positive Babinski sign on the right side.

Analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid showed no abnormal findings. The initial postoperative course was uneventful.

A combined therapy of local irradiation and temozolomide chemotherapy was started [1]. Four weeks after the termination of radiotherapy, the patient showed clinical progression with tetraparesis and neurological bladder dysfunction.

Fesl, M. Demmel, J. Albrecht, R. Kopietz, V. Schoepf, A. Kleemann, O. Pollatos, A. Anzinger, T. Schreder, H. Brueckmann and M. Material and Methods: Twenty-nine healthy subjects participated in three functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI sessions each.

The sessions differed regarding emotional states, which were induced by standardized pleasant positive condition, POS , unpleasant negative condition, NEG , or neutral neutral condition, NEU pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System IAPS while the subjects performed a finger-tapping task right index-to-thumb opposition.

After each session, the subjects had to rate their actual mood and the pleasantness of the presented pictures.

Furthermore, their state anxiety was assessed. Behavioral data were evaluated with SPSS. Functional imaging data were processed using statistical parametric mapping SPM2 and were analyzed for main effects of emotional stimulation using an analysis of variance ANOVA.

The local maximum of interest was analyzed by a signal change analysis. Results: Compared to the neutral emotional state, the positive and the negative emotional states caused a reduction of signal intensity changes within the primary sensorimotor hand area during simple finger tapping.

The behavioral data indicated that the unpleasant pictures had a stronger effect on the emotional state than the pleasant images.

Conclusion: This study showed that the emotional state of a test person is indeed influencing fMRI results and that well-balanced subjects in a neutral mood achieve the best fMRI results.

Becker Abstract Report of a year-old woman who had sudden vision problems and homonymous hemianopia on the left. A cranial computed tomography CCT was carried out in a radiologic practice.

A native homogeneous, smooth-edged hyperdense intracerebral mass of about 5. Following intravenous administration of contrast medium, a patchy increase in density of about 1 cm was seen.

The mass had only a thin hypodense rim. The patient was informed that she had a tumor. Three days later, magnetic resonance imaging was to be done for further evaluation.

After the patient had returned home, she had headaches, nausea and vomiting in the evening. At night, she was admitted to a hospital as emergency case.

With further increase of intracranial pressure, a craniotomy was done and a hemorrhage was removed.

Histologically, a bleeding of a cavernous hemangioma was found. Le Bon, Despite such qualitative difference, the common feature of these explanations was a focus on the crowd itself and its inherent and universal pathology.

This decontextualised and reified view of the crowd put forward by classic theory has been supplanted within social psychology by a model that emphasises the contextual determination of crowd action, particularly in terms of the dynamics of intergroup interaction.

Rather than a mere focus on the crowd, crowd behaviour is seen to result from ongoing interaction processes between the participating groups e.

This view involves an increased focus on the strategies and tactics of the police impact on crowd behaviour.

The first characterised by a negative view of the protesters, little or no communication and an escalating use of force.

This trend however is also seen to be related with an increasing use of paramilitary policing tactics in order to maintain public order c.

In their evaluation of the European Championships in Belgium and the Netherlands, Adang and Cuvelier presented an analysis of different policing styles and their impact on fan-behaviour within the same event.

In the run up to the tournament the two countries had agreed on a friendly and firm tactical concept that was basically preventive and pro-active and based on a combination of police expertise and public order research Adang, It comprised the open deployment of small surveillance units in regular uniforms, easily approachable and actively contacting fans.

In the cities that used a high profile approach, there were three times as many officers visible. Policing in low profile cities was more carried out according to the tactical concept and the behavioural profile that was initially agreed on.

Relating the different styles of policing to the number of violent incidents, the highest number of incidents was measured at games that had been assessed as posing low risk but that were policed with a high-profile strategy.

However, they only show that a certain style is working, not why. The ESIM puts an emphasis on the interactive character of a crowd situation and the mutual influence of the participating groups.

It assumes that people define themselves as members of the category that is salient in a given situation and will conform to its beliefs and standards.

Studies among different crowds, such as protesters, demonstrators and football crowds e. Where police used indiscriminate force against crowds this could lead to circumstances where crowd participants began to unite psychologically and define their relationship with the police as illegitimate.

Bearing upon this, Stott and Adang ; examined crowd interaction involving English football supporters at 35 away matches with an international dimension.

Their findings led to recommendations for police practice in general c. This concerned in particular the tactical depth of deployment, in which four levels of response provided for targeted and adjustable interventions.

Their presence was aimed to transmit a feeling of security, their specific tasks involved pro- active communication, surveillance and the resolution of small incidents.

In case of escalating risk, they would be supported by further intervention units that were placed out of sight.

It was evident how the PSP policing provided a context in which self policing among England fans was facilitated or how differentiated police interventions prevented the escalation of violence Stott et al.

It must be considered, however that this form of policing was only applied in PSP areas, while the national Gendarmerie GNR , Portugal's other police force, developed its own security policy, which was characterised by lesser tactical depth, no proactive activities and a lesser emphasis on communication.

Particularly the findings around the Euro on its facilitation of self-regulation among the fan group and the marginalisation of anti-social behaviour have had a high impact on practical policing, so that issues of the approach have meanwhile been integrated in the EU Handbook with recommendations for international police cooperation 6 EU, However, the existing literature focuses exclusively upon the policing and psychological reactions of England and Scotland fans.

Consequently, there is as yet no empirical analysis of the cross cultural dimensions to the dynamics outlined within ESIM.

More specifically there is a lack of evidence concerning the psychology, group processes and intergroup relationships involving and surrounding high-risk categories from other nations attending football matches and 5 Stott et al.

The perception of the inappropriateness of police action, subsequently led to an increasing sense of the perceived appropriateness among England fans to confront the police.

This absence within the literature is made more acute given the extent to which the ESIM is currently informing updates to international guidelines for international police cooperation and pan-European police training with respect to football matches with an international dimension.

Moreover, the fixture between Germany and the Netherlands during the opening rounds of the tournament was classified by the organising authorities to be the one posing the highest level of risk to public order.

None the less the event passed without any major disturbances. The subsequent analysis will examine if the processes that the ESIM proposes are responsible for the absence of widespread disorder among England fans were also evident among German fans attending the same tournament.

Method The data presented in this paper was collected as part of a wider research project of which a number of analyses from this broader project have already been published elsewhere see Reicher et al.

It is the intention of the present paper to add to this literature by providing an account of the broad dimensions of German fans collective behaviour and police deployment surrounding events involving German fans.

Data was gathered using a variety of techniques. Semi-structured observations and interviews. Semi-structured observations were carried out for the duration of the tournament by the current authors.

This data was obtained while the observers participated in gatherings and events where large numbers of German fans were involved.

The first author, who is German, was also embedded among German fans during the tournament, conducting semistructured observation and interviews.

Her data collection was carried out around two games Germany played in Porto and one in Lisbon.

Her observations in Porto started on June She went to places where great numbers of German fans gathered. She attended the game against the Netherlands on June 15 and against Latvia on June 19 and visited public screenings at fan zones.

Together with German fans she travelled to Lisbon by train where she resumed her observations on June Again, data collection was concentrated on the location where German fans gathered.

On June 23 she attended the game of Germany against the Czech Republic. Though Germany did not proceed to the second round of the tournament, many fans stayed in the area which allowed for further data collection until the final game of Portugal against Greece on June 30 in Lisbon.

While she was embedded with fans, she made informal contacts and revealed her status and aims as a researcher.

In doing so she was able to speak with the fans about the specific research issues but also to refer to themes that arose in a specific situation.

Informed consent was obtained and interviews were digitally recorded and later transcribed. As the fan groups had mingled, the recorded conversations also involved 12 fans from The Netherlands, 13 from England and 4 from Croatia.

The interviews with German fans displayed in this paper were translated by the first author all other interviews were conducted in English.

These interview data were also cross referenced with media reports, such as newspaper and internet articles. Interviews with police commanders A series of semi-structured interviews were also conducted by the authors with a variety of police Commanders.

The interviews focused on general strategies and tactics that 42 had been applied in Porto during the tournament and considered specific incidents that occurred in Porto with respect to the management of events surrounding the fixture between Netherlands and Portugal.

Interviews with police commanders were carried out either at Police Headquarters in Porto or in the field during and after the events that are outlined in the behavioural account.

Analytical strategy The analytic strategy in this paper follows that of previous research that is based on the ESIM e. The behavioural account provides a chronological description of incidents, police deployment and behavioural norms among crowds of German fans based primarily upon the semi-structured observational data but which also draws form the interview data from fans and police, photographs and video footage.

In particular, the account focuses on those aspects of the events that will be put to further analysis in the subsequent sections. Data were triangulated and where only one source provides data related to an event, the source is identified Stott et al.

The interviews were transcribed and read several times. This process was informed by the theoretical approach and the understandings and perceptions of the specific groups: For the police interviews, the analysis focused on police understandings of their role, their strategy and tactics used to police German fans and how these relate to those aspects of fan behaviour identified as relevant within the behavioural account.

Again, following the theoretical approach, the analysis focused on the fans perception of the event and attitudes toward outgroups, the views of ingroup behaviour and intergroup relations and any further points of interest and emerging issues that seemed to be relevant.

The right-hand margin was used to annotate these themes. These notes were organised and sorted into categories and subcategories.

From this a coding scheme was developed and again applied to the interviews. Codes were assigned to the transcripts.

Segments were grouped under each code before they 43 were related to issues from the interactional context, as it was described in the behavioural account.

For each theme a verbatim extract from the interviews is presented that best illustrates the analytical point. Results Behavioural account The majority of the German fans followed the team during the group phase where they played the Netherlands and Latvia in Porto and the Czech Republic in Lisbon.

The fixture between the Netherlands and Germany was initially drawn to take place in the city of Aveiro. However, given the perceived risks to public order posed by this fixture a decision was taken by the Organising committee to move the game to Porto for organisational and safety reasons c.

Harris, The match was scheduled for 15 June and many German fans had begun to arrive in Porto some days prior to the game. However, the first significant mass gathering of fans began on June By mid afternoon large numbers of Dutch and German fans had gathered in the pubs, cafes and on the squares of the city centre of Porto.

Small numbers of fans from other nations were also present in the city, such as Greeks, English, Danes and Swedes. The Porto city authorities had assigned official zones to the two fan groups, each set up with a stage and a big video screen.

However, fans were not strictly segregated and mixed at these locations and elsewhere in the city centre. According to information from the Dutch and the German police delegations, about German and 60 Dutch hooligans were also present in Portugal.

The strategic approach adopted for the tournament by the PSP was oriented toward the facilitation of lawful and carnival behaviour among fans.

Central to this was a desire to avoid the use of indiscriminate force against crowds as a whole in circumstances where only a minority within the crowd were causing problems.

The use of force policy for the PSP explicitly stated: 7 This compares, for example to persons arrested due to criminal offences and preventive arrests during the World Cup in the state of Northrhine-Westphalia only Wolf, , where 16 games were played.

The idea is that officers in normal uniform would work in pairs facilitating lawful behaviours and monitoring the crowd for any emergent problems.

If minor problems were identified they would have the capability for low level intervention. If this was not sufficient these police could call upon larger squads who could deploy with or without helmets and batons depending upon the level of risk.

If the situation was still not resolved the Corpo could be deployed. Supporting this were teams of plain clothes officers working in small groups of approximately five officers.

These teams would be embedded in crowds monitoring for and reacting to risks. Not all officers from these units were completely invisible.

Some took up foot patrols but did so without any of their protective equipment. Consequently, on the evening of the 14th the Ribeira was crowded with fans.

We observed about people gathering in the Ribeira between hrs and midnight. In the centre of the Ribeira was a Dutch brass band, playing well known and traditional party songs.

The area was densely crowded so groups were in close proximity and many positive interactions between the groups and between individuals were observed.

Around hrs about 10 PSP officers in standard uniforms patrolled the Ribeira; additionally there was team of plain-clothes officers embedded within the crowd.

At around this time a confrontation between a small group of Dutch and German fans took place amidst the crowd.

Approximately five German fans had begun to provoke Dutch fans. According to police accounts a group of plain clothed officers noticed the problem and intervened to verbally instruct the German fans to stop but the German fans then began to physically 45 confront these officers.

The five Germans were immediately arrested and removed them from the scene. At around hrs, amidst this largely Dutch crowd, a group of approximately eight Germans at the river end of the square began singing racist and anti-Dutch chants e.

This behaviour went on for at least 30 minutes and tensions began to emerge among Dutch supporters gathered nearby. According to our semi structured observations at around Shortly afterwards, the chanting faded and the officers withdrew.

Our observations record that throughout these incidents the Dutch brass band continued to play and positive interactions continued elsewhere in the Square.

During the whole night we observed no further incidents. The positive fan behaviour continued on the following match-day where prior to the game thousands of Dutch supporters gathered in the Lisboa Square.

Information was obtained by the Dutch police delegation that there was an intention of Dutch fans to march to the stadium some five kilometres away, rather than use public transport.

Rather than prevent this, Portuguese police made the decision to facilitate the march. From a member of our research team, it was reported to us that around 6 p.

The police profile remained very low and no riot police or vehicles were observed in the vicinity. As the crowd proceeded through the streets traffic police managed the roadways.

Local Portuguese came onto the streets, balconies and windows to applaud the Dutch fans. At the front and ahead of the march were teams of Dutch and German police officers.

As the march proceeded at times small groups of German fans came onto the streets and some shouted hostility at the Dutch fans.

Those that did were approached by the German and Dutch police and required to move. The march eventually arrived at the stadium without incident.

Following the match the two fan groups again mixed and celebrated at the Ribeira. Taken together, the data indicates that an approach was taken to safety and security for this fixture that allowed for peaceful encounters between fans from Germany and the Netherlands and was facilitated by the low profile policing of the PSP.

Officers in normal uniforms and plain-clothes officers patrolled the sites. However it was evident that they were ready for and engaged in relatively rapid, differentiated interventions in situations where risks to public order began to emerge.

Policing approach With regard to the Netherlands Germany fixture the visiting police made reference to concerns about the presence of German hooligans in Portugal.

They are in the country. Instead reflecting the overall police strategy the police referred to their commitment to interaction, communication and targeted interventions.

An approach made possible due to the deployment of plain clothes officers in close proximity to the crowds. We are looking for the situations, through the fans, always looking for something.

To prevent that things happen. When we think that things are going to happen, we act. The Head of the NIP in the city provided an account of his involvement in the incidents at the Ribeira.

His account suggests 47 that because they were embedded within the crowd they rapidly became aware of the verbal provocations from the group of Germans.

He described how his officers then were able to react quickly to the emerging problem. He describes how the group then confronted the police leading to their arrest.

And it was against us. Against the police. When after the first arrests another group of German fans engaged in provocations, he describes that NIP officers cordoned them off from the main crowd.

Due to their civilian clothing this movement had not been noticed, though an increased presence of officers in standard uniform had been evident.

However, the police assumed that those fans were well aware of the increasing presence of officers. The account further shows that the police closely monitored the fan behaviour and adjusted their actions according to dynamics of the risk that came from this group.

This did not only concern the escalation but also the de-escalation of risk behaviour. In this regard the PSP commander also noticed this group of -initially- provoking German fans refraining from this negative behaviour while remaining in the crowd.

And they forget that. He supposed that they deliberately withdrew and separated from the celebrating majority. Under no circumstances they wanted to be linked to the folk that was celebrating there.

Whereas, so far everything is absolutely peaceful. They are standing there, but somehow unobtrusively in the corner.

MS: Because of the match. G Yes, yes and because of the trouble. Do you think it will go off tomorrow? G Yes. Not in the stadium.

Afterwards here in Porto maybe, in small groups. If conflict with the Dutch fans occurred it would also involve ordinary fans expressing their solidarity with one another, in terms of a historically embedded conflict between nations, i.

MS: Why is that? G Just to support the own people. Because everybody is prepared against the Dutch.

MS: And that refers to the opponent? G They still talk about the war. Van Nistelrooy said in the paper today that we still have to work something out from 60 years ago.

Why does he say that? G Yes, but that was in the tabloid. G So? But the Dutch are like that. They are all like that.

They just hate us more than we hate them. German fans who had observed the arrest noticed the differentiated way of PSP policing and described the intervention against the violent fans as quick and targeted.

In the context of football it implies fights between fans or fans and the police. I just saw, well the Germans [police] are really mad, they just bang into it no matter if it is you or him or me who is standing beside it.

Here they [the Portuguese officers] have observed precisely, many plain clothes, watched: who is it?

And whoosh, arm on the back, into the car, off they go. All was clear. These processes occurred amongst both sets of fans: instead of joining in the fight and confronting the Dutch, as it had been expected, German fans that had witnessed the incident described those involved as differentiated from a broader categorisation defined in terms of partying.

MS: So you regard people who do stuff like that as idiots? G Yes, of course. MS: Not everybody thinks like that, some think that that is really great G Actually I do not care at all if somebody is a Croat or English or whatever.

Was that appropriate? H2: Very good, yes, it is appropriate, they were very fast and it was good, yeah. They immediately took one down and carried him away.

And this is nice. Loud music and this is good G They dissolved in the end Even fans that were interviewed later in the tournament referred to the positive context that they perceived during their stay in Portugal and linked this specifically to a sense of unity between fans from different nations.

Well, you always see some rivalry of course but Well I was down there in Porto at the harbour, where really: There were English together with Italians, Swedes, Danes, Portuguese, Germans, Latvians, all together, there was a mega party, absolutely peaceful!

All united by football and keen on having a big football feast. And this is what the hosts definitely 50 achieved: To make a football party for the fans!

Not overdoing security, or putting merchandise upfront but organising a football feast for the fans who came down here.

Respect Portugal, really! Stott et al. The analysis suggests that the policing was carried out low profile, in line with the stated security concept of the Portuguese police.

A discrepancy between German fans expectations of negative group relations based on historically rooted rivalry and actual positive intergroup relations that they experienced in Portugal was evident.

From this two sets of fan identity seemed to emerge: a form of national identity was expected to be salient in a confrontational context, where violent others were not differentiated from the category.

The analysis suggests that the low profile policing contributed to this positive context. In situations of low risk fans saw the unobtrusive behaviour of police officers related to the overall positive atmosphere.

However, the impact of the policing on the festive atmosphere was even more evident during a conflict situation at the Ribeira.

Low profile policing tactics allowed for a quick and targeted arrest of confrontational fans and prevented further escalation. The perception of this legitimate policing facilitated the shift toward an identity where category boundaries were defined in terms of non-violent behaviour rather in terms of nationality.

These findings have a great deal of correspondence with the processes that occurred among England fans that attended the tournament in Portugal Stott et al.

Research among both sets of fan groups suggests that the absence of large scale disorder can be associated with the style of policing.

While the experience of legitimate policing instigated processes of self-policing among England fans, this was not evident at the incident at the Ribeira.

However, in both cases a connection was evident between low profile policing and the support of non-violent group norms among the wider crowd and the disempowerment and marginalisation of confrontational groups.

The present study therefore provides support for the ESIM research on the absence of violence at crowd events. Suggestions can be made that 51 the processes the model proposes are not limited to a single cultural group but also apply to groups from other countries, as it was shown here with respect to German fans.

It must be noted though that the current study is not conclusive. There is need for further research in order to sustain the possibility that ESIM dynamics are cross cultural.

Processes found here could for example have been limited to the specific context of Euro at which both England and Germany fans reacted in similar ways.

Additional research is therefore suggested on German and other fan groups in different policing contexts. Implications for policing and research The positive atmosphere of the Euro has been praised e.

Deutsche Welle, ; Klemm, and considering the small arrest numbers, it can be regarded the most peaceful major football tournament in Europe in the last 30 years.

The PSP has effectively managed crowd dynamics and the fan accounts reveal the positive social psychological outcomes.

A main feature here was the fact that police officers both plain cloths and visible police were embedded in the crowd, enabling them to monitor for and react to risk that was critical.

As indicated before, the issues of the approach have meanwhile been integrated in practical policing and the current paper likewise supports the application of the low profile approach as a powerful tool of managing crowd events.

So while comprehensive policing tactics and procedures are available, research is able to provide answers to why and under which circumstances they can be used most effectively.

It may be concluded that not only the application of appropriate tactics but also the understanding of the underlying philosophy are essential for successful public order management.

Home Office. Data collection was made possible through the long-term co-operation of the U. Thanks should also be extended to Klaus Boehnke from Jacobs University Bremen and Otto Adang from the Police Academy of the Netherlands, for their comments on an earlier version of this paper.

Otto Adang was also co-supervisor of the broader research project and provided some additional observations. And finally we would like to give our thanks to all the anonymous fans that attended Euro and contributed greatly to this research.

References Adang, O. Policing Euro Beek-Ubbergen: Tandem Felix. Adang, O. Geweld en politie-optreden in relsituaties.

Alphen aan den Rijn: Samsom. Allport, F. Social Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Policing contentious politics in Denmark and in Sweden.

Maastricht: Shaker Publishing. Boyatzis, Richard, E. Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development.

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Della Porta, A. Aldershot, Burlington: Ashgate, The Policing of Protest in Western Democracies. Reiter Eds.

Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Deutsche Welle Fans, not Hooligans the Story of Portugal.

The intergroup dynamics of collective empowerment: Substantiating the social identity model. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 2, Drury, J.

Explaining enduring empowerment: A comparative study of collective action and psychological outcomes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, Collective action and psychological change: The emergence of new social identities.

EU Updated handbook with recommendations for international police cooperation and measures to prevent and control violence and disturbances in connection with football matches with an international dimension, in which at least one Member State is involved.

Safety fears force Uefa to move Croatia match. Report on Euro A report on the FA's role in off-field initiatives and services provided for supporters.

The Independent Football Commission. Beyond Paramilitarism. The British Journal of Criminology, 27, 1, Pondering Paramilitarism: A Question of Standpoints?

The British Journal of Criminology 33, Jefferson, T. The Case Against Paramilitary Policing. London: Milton Keynes. Open University Press.

Kellehear, A. Klemm, T. Apfelsinenkulturen an der Algarve: Stimmung statt Randale. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung.

Kritzer, H. Political protest and political violence: a nonrecursive causal model. Social Forces 55, Le Bon, G.

The Crowd: A study of the popular mind. London: Ernest Benn. McPhail, C. The myth of the madding crowd. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Protest Policing in the United States. Noakes, J. Peterson, A. Confidential document of the Portuguese Security Police.

Lisbon: Home Office. Reicher, S. Crowd behaviour as social action. Turner, M. Hogg, P. Oakes, S. Wetherell Eds. Oxford: Blackwell.

An integrated approach to crowd psychology and pubic order policing. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26, Knowledge based public order policing: Principles and practice.

Reid, K. Exploring lived experience. The Psychologist, 18, Sighele, S. La foule criminelle. Essai de psychologie collective.

Paris: Alean. Smith, Jonathan A. Interpretative phenomenological analysis. Breakwell Ed , Doing Social Psychology research.

Spiegel, J. Hostility, aggression and violence. Grimshaw Ed. Chicago: Aldine. Stott, C. Human Relations, 53, British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, Sociology, 32, Unpublished report to the U.

Variability in the collective behaviour of England fans at Euro policing, intergroup relations, social identity and social change.

European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. London: Pennant Books.

Adang Understanding and managing risk. Slagelse: Bavnebanke Press. Tajfel, H. An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict.

Worchel Eds. Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole. Vitale, A. Waddington, P. The case against paramilitary policing considered. Liberty and order: Policing public order in a capital city.

London: UCL Press. Towards Paramilitarism? Dilemmas in the Policing of Public Order. The British Journal of Criminology 27, Forestalling violence: Police knowledge of interaction with political activists.

Mobilization: The International Quarterly, 12 4 , Negotiating Political Protest in Gothenburg and Copenhagen. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Wolf, I. Rede von Innenminister Dr. The World Cup in Germany was therefore a unique opportunity to continue the research and to see how, if, under which circumstances low profile policing works or what effect other approaches may have on fan behaviour.

In contrast to Portugal it was not obvious what kind of policing approach was intended by the German police.

The authorities had published an official document where providing for safety and security was presented as the main police task and it was stated that there would be a focus on potential hooligans but it did not seem that the police saw themselves as part of the festivities.

Questions arose on how the police in Germany would understand their role, what their strategy and tactics were and how this would relate to fan behaviour.

Thanks to cooperation between the Police Academy of the Netherlands and the Ruhr-University Bochum it was possible to set up a similar methodological framework as it had been applied in Portugal.

Again it was possible to pursue a variety of research methods, including structured observations and ethnographical methods so that different tournaments could be compared.

However, it was unfeasible to cover all host cities of the country. For practical and organisational reasons the main observations focused on the three host cities of North-Rhine Westphalia.

In order to provide for a comprehensive picture of the tournament it was sought to observe both high-risk and low-risk games. At each game there were at least four observers present gathering structured observational data.

Having been encouraged by the openness of fans in Portugal, observers were also asked to conduct interviews about their perceptions of group relations.

This turned out as helpful with regard to access because fellow officers on duty seemed more willing to talk to a colleague than to a psychologist interested in group relations.

Also, as outlined in the paper, there was the question of how the findings would compare with the picture that the media had painted of this tournament.

A higher number of incidents in Germany served as a first hint that something must have been different to Portugal. In order to better understand these differences it was necessary to dig deeper.

In the paper single incidents are outlined, each of which contained the potential for conflict, using the semi-structured field notes and interviews.

Although the aim of this thesis is to present data on non-British fans, two of the incidents described nevertheless involved England fans.

This once again reflects the difficulty of observing real-life situations as group composition cannot be manipulated.

The actually biggest incident of the tournament occurred around the game of Germany versus Poland and was fully analysed in a separate study this is described in the subsequent paper.

Most other incidents we observed however involved England fans. This paper also addresses the media coverage and in particular the very positive picture that portrays the World Cup in terms of positive and cheerful fan behaviour.

In general the data confirms this behaviour but during the data collection also a number of negative encounters and incidents were recorded and it was remarkable how little of this was reported on, though it should be noted that incidents had not been disguised.

All numbers were freely available in police reports and press releases, also serving as a source of data triangulation in 57 this paper.

During informal talks a number of police officers uttered similar surprise of the little media coverage of violent incidents, as they knew indeed that the World Cup had not only been a fairy tale.

In methodological respect this paper provides evidence that quantifiable data can be obtained during contemporaneous data collection and it provides valuable measures of tactics and interaction.

It even suggests that this should be carried out regularly as in doing so the comparison of strategies can be facilitated.

It further promotes the application of mixed methods in conducting crowd research as the study shows that none of the methods applied on its own would have provided such a comprehensive picture.

With regard to the theoretical aspect the results suggests that legitimate group relations and positive fan behaviour were at place in Germany when policing was carried out targeted, differentiated and in relation to the situational context and the actual risk and when tolerance limits were communicated and acted upon, but we observed problems, when these conditions were not met.

Mit den etwas anderen Bildern der WM. Leider hat diese Bilder niemand in Deutschland gesehen. Yet, more than persons were arrested.

This paper presents an analysis of police tactics and deployments and its relation to the frequency of incidents and the group relations between fans and between fans and police.

The data collection was carried out within three host cities in North Rhine Westphalia in relation to ten games of the tournament, drawing on a combination of structured and qualitative observational methods.

The outcomes are mixed. Group relations were mostly positive, indicated by positive interaction between fan groups, however, frequency of incidents and arrests suggest that the tournament was not as peaceful as the media coverage may have implied.

Deeper analyses suggest that legitimate group relations and positive fan behaviour were associated with differentiated policing, carried out in relation to the situational context and the actual risk present.

The phrase furthermore described the happenings offside the pitch on the fan miles, in the public viewing zones and the city centres.

It summarised the national and international euphoria in Germany, the fan parties and gatherings, the peaceful atmosphere that had characterised this tournament and that was praised by fans, officials and - not least - by the media in Germany and all over the world.

A generational change as the base for a relaxed German patriotism Mayer, may have facilitated good hosting.

But was the World Cup really the fairy tale it is made out to be? BBC-Panorama in their undercover documentation about policing and anti-social behaviour of fans and hooligans pointed to a more shady side of the tournament BBC, Also, it is less well known that about persons were arrested during Germany Mathies, numbers that were hardly communicated in the media.

What really happened during the World Cup? This method makes it possible to gather comprehensive observational data about fan behaviour, police behaviour, group interaction, police deployment and tactics and to relate these numbers to the amount of violent incidents that occurred during the observations.

While many factors can account for the success of a crowd event, the question if it was peaceful in the end is still the major issue.

Establishing safety and security at a crowd event is both cost and staff-intensive. A peaceful event on the other hand, can serve as a perpetual system in which the positive dynamics spread and also affect initially uninvolved persons.

On the other hand not only preventing incidents but providing a platform for positive encounters is also becoming an issue for public order 60 policing, thus indicating a qualitative change from riot control to public order and crowd management Adang, Crowd behaviour The ideas and conceptions of those who handle, manage or police crowds are of great significance.

It is their understanding and their explanation of crowd behaviour that determines how a crowd is dealt with and which strategy and tactics would be applied at a concrete event.

Further it was shown that crowds are neither mad nor irrational but that most crowd events are peaceful e.

Still, crowd conflict is an important issue not least because of its broad public attention and an escalated crowd conflict can indeed leave substantial destruction and may only be fought by massive use of force.

It is therefore all the more important to consider the dynamics that can evolve in a crowd situation so that measures can be taken timely and targeted.

For the escalation of collective violence, i. It proposes that group norms can alter as a result of the interaction with the other group.

This particularly applies to situations of conflict, where a change of social identity was found when crowd members perceived out-group behaviour as indiscriminate and undifferentiated.

Dependent on the situation a whole range of tactics from both approaches can therefore be applicable. The friendly but firm low profile approach The friendly but firm low profile approach turned out to fit very well with suggestions coming out of the ESI-model.

The friendly but firm low profile is characterised by a broad and flexible tactical concept that provides for quick escalation and de-escalation, high visibility of the officers and an emphasis on communication.

It is suggested that police officers are deployed in small units who are easily approachable and who themselves pro-actively get in contact with citizens and fans.

In so doing they are able to set a framework for behaviour, for example by facilitating legal aims and communicating behavioural limits, acting friendly but firm.

In case of increasing risk, the officers should then be supported by additional intervention units, possibly placed in side streets that can quickly be deployed and removed when the situation calms.

Differentiated interventions are vital for legitimate group relations. Psychologically this strategy prohibits a shift of social identity toward conflict and can lead to the marginalisation of anti-normative persons and may facilitate co-operation and identification with the police Stott et al.

The work of the officers on the ground has a 62 further, more internal effect: Being deployed within the crowds, they are able to detect developments and dynamics at a very early stage.

This information can then be fed back into the information chain and serve as additional intelligence, thus supporting information-led interventions.

The security concept of the Portuguese Security Police, PSP, was geared to this approach and went along with broad tactical measures that allowed interventions to be carried in accordance to the risk that was present in a particular situation.

An evaluation of the policing during the tournament shows that the PSP indeed followed the low profile approach Stott et al. Stott and Adang showed that the frequency of incidents during Euro was very low compared to Euro Also, arrest figures were low, with of which 87 were arrests for football related disorder during the whole tournament COT, In several situations of conflict acts of self-policing were found and the marginalisation of persons who did not behave in accordance with this identity.

While these studies support the low profile approach and the underlying elaborated social identity model of crowd behaviour, it may yet be argued that the success of Euro was singular, merely applying for that one event or the specific groups that were present in Portugal during the tournament.

Further evidence is required, particularly to learn if the suggested relations also apply in different contexts that may be formed by national or cultural features or the understandings and philosophies of the police forces.

On the basis of previous research, we saw a successful event related to two aspects. Firstly to safety and security; indicated by the frequency and severity of violent incidents and secondly associated with a good atmosphere that manifests itself in positive inter-group relations.

Using the same methodology it was possible to compare findings from previous studies with the policing that was carried out at the WC Prior to the tournament, the Federal German home office had issued an official summary of their security concept for the WC Bundesministerium des Inneren, It must be noted however, that German police is decentralised and subject to the respective federal states, resulting in 16 different state police forces with different legislations, respectively.

The WC security concept therefore provided a framework for police conduct that was then translated into action by the individual police forces.

As had been the case for Euro and Euro , the German national framework described the use of extensive international cooperation and internal measures, e.

Unlike Euro and , it also included regional bans of internal German risk fans. Support and facilitation of fans and visitors was to be organised by the World Cup Committee and not described as police task.

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